Arrays allow us to store and manipulate data efficiently, enabling us to perform a wide range of tasks. In this article, we will explore the essential basic most common operations associated with arrays in Python.
Sorting and Shuffling
Sorting and shuffling are common operations in data manipulation and analysis. In Python, there are builtin functions and methods available to perform these tasks efficiently.
How to Get a Sorted Array in Python
In Python, you can sort an array (or list) using the sorted()
function. The sorted()
function takes an iterable as input and returns a new sorted list containing the elements of the original iterable.
Here's an example of how to use sorted()
for sorting an array:
my_array = [5, 2, 1, 4, 3]
sorted_array = sorted(my_array)
print(sorted_array) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
In this example, sorted(my_array)
returns a new list that contains the elements of my_array
in sorted order. The sorted_array
variable stores this sorted list, and it is then printed to the console.
It's important to note that the sorted()
function returns a new sorted list and does not modify the original array in place. If you want to sort the original array itself, you can use the sort()
method of the array instead:
my_array = [5, 2, 1, 4, 3]
my_array.sort()
print(my_array) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
In this case, my_array.sort()
sorts the elements of my_array
in place, modifying the array directly. The sorted array is then printed to the console.
How to Shuffle an Array
To shuffle an array in Python, you can use the random.shuffle()
function from the random
module. This function shuffles the elements of a sequence randomly, inplace. Here's an example:
import random
my_array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
random.shuffle(my_array)
print(my_array)
Append, Push, Concatenate & Extend
Let's review the way of appending or pushing elements to an array.
How To Append an Element to an Array
Appending an element to an existing array in Python can be done using the append()
method provided by the list data type. Here is an example of how to add an element to an array (or list):
array = ['apple', 'banana', 'orange']
array.append('grape')
print(array) # Output: ['apple', 'banana', 'orange', 'grape']
The append()
method allows to insert the specified element to the end of the array (or list). It modifies the original list in place and does not return a new list.
You can append elements of any data type to a Python list, including strings, numbers, or even other lists.
As you see, the append()
method allows you easily expand the array (or list) by adding a new elements.
Note: The
append()
method can only add one element at a time. If you want to add multiple elements to the array, you can use theextend()
method or concatenate lists using the+
operator.
How to Push an Element into an Array
In Python, the concept of "pushing" elements into an array is typically associated with mutable data structures like lists. Mutable data structures allow you to modify the elements by adding, removing, or modifying values. Therefore it is the same approach as append()
method, you can "push" elements into an array using a list:
my_list = [] # Initialize an empty list
# Pushing elements into the list
my_list.append(1)
my_list.append(2)
my_list.append(3)
print(my_list) # Output: [1, 2, 3]
Note: This approach applies specifically to lists in Python. Other data structures, such as NumPy arrays or immutable tuples, have different methods or limitations for modifying their contents.
How to Concatenate Arrays in Python
To concatenate arrays in Python, you can use various methods, depending on the type of arrays you are working with. Here are a few examples of how to combine arrays:
 Using the
+
operator with standard Python lists:
array1 = [1, 2, 3]
array2 = [4, 5, 6]
concatenated = array1 + array2
print(concatenated) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
 Using the
concatenate()
function from NumPy:
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
concatenated = np.concatenate((array1, array2))
print(concatenated) # Output: [1 2 3 4 5 6]
 Using the
hstack()
orvstack()
functions from NumPy for horizontal or vertical concatenation, respectively:
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
concatenated = np.hstack((array1, array2))
print(concatenated) # Output: [1 2 3 4 5 6]
In this example, we use the hstack()
function to horizontally stack array1
and array2
, resulting in a new array concatenated
that contains the concatenated elements in a single row.
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
concatenated = np.vstack((array1, array2))
print(concatenated)
Output:
[[1 2 3]
[4 5 6]]
In this example, we use the vstack()
function to vertically stack array1
and array2
, resulting in a new array concatenated
that contains the concatenated elements in two rows.
How to Extend an Array in Python
There are various methods which allow us to extend an array in Python. Here are a few approaches how to merge or combine arrays in Python:
 List:
If you have a list, you can use the extend()
method to add elements from another iterable to the end of the list. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3]
new_elements = [4, 5, 6]
my_list.extend(new_elements)
print(my_list)
 NumPy:
If you are working with NumPy arrays, you can use the concatenate()
function to combine two arrays along a specified axis. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
extended_array = np.concatenate((array1, array2))
print(extended_array)
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array
module, you can use the extend()
method to add elements from another iterable to the end of the array. Here's an example:
import array as arr
my_array = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3])
new_elements = arr.array('i', [4, 5, 6])
my_array.extend(new_elements)
print(my_array)
getsizeof() Function
In Python, there is no builtin function called sizeof()
to directly get the size of an array or list. However, you can use the sys
module's getsizeof()
function to get an estimate of the memory size occupied by an object.
Here's an example:
import sys
my_list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
size = sys.getsizeof(my_list)
print(size) # Output: 104 (the size in bytes)
In the example above, we import the sys
module and use the getsizeof()
function to get the size of the my_list
object in bytes.
Note: The value returned by
getsizeof()
includes the overhead of the list object itself and may not provide an exact representation of the memory occupied by the array/list elements.
Reverse and Transpose
Quite often we come across situations in Python where we need to reverse or transpose an array.
How to Reverse an Array in Python
You can reverse or flip an array (list) in Python using various methods. Here are a few common approaches for reversing an array in Python:
 Using the
reverse()
method:
my_list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
my_list.reverse()
print(my_list) # Output: [50, 40, 30, 20, 10]
 Using the slicing technique:
my_list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
reversed_list = my_list[::1]
print(reversed_list) # Output: [50, 40, 30, 20, 10]
 Using the
reversed()
function:
my_list = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
reversed_list = list(reversed(my_list))
print(reversed_list) # Output: [50, 40, 30, 20, 10]
All three methods achieve the same result. The first method uses the reverse()
method, which reverses the elements of the list inplace, modifying the original list.The second method utilizes slicing with a step value of 1 ([::1]
), which creates a new list with the elements in reverse order. The third method uses the reversed()
function to create a reverse iterator, which is then converted to a list using the list()
function.
How to Transpose Array in Python
To transpose a list and a NumPy array in Python, you can follow the steps below:
Transposing a List:

Create a list of lists where each inner list represents a row of the original matrix.

Use the
zip(*list)
function to transpose the list.
Here's an example:
# Create a sample list
list_of_lists = [[1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6]]
# Transpose the list
transposed_list = list(zip(*list_of_lists))
print(transposed_list) # Output: [(1, 4), (2, 5), (3, 6)]
Transposing a NumPy Array:
To transpose a NumPy array, you can use the transpose()
function provided by the NumPy library, as shown in the previous example. Here's an example specific to a NumPy array:
import numpy as np
# Create a sample array
array = np.array([[1, 2, 3],
[4, 5, 6]])
# Transpose the array
transposed_array = np.transpose(array)
print(transposed_array)
Output:
[[1 4]
[2 5]
[3 6]]
How to Check if an Array is Empty
To check if an array is empty in Python, you can use the len()
function or direct comparison with an empty array. Here's how you can do it for different types of arrays:
 List:
my_list = [] # Empty list
# Using len() function
if len(my_list) == 0:
print("Array is empty")
# Direct comparison
if my_list == []:
print("Array is empty")
 NumPy array:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([]) # Empty NumPy array
# Using len() function
if len(my_array) == 0:
print("Array is empty")
# Direct comparison
if np.array_equal(my_array, np.array([])):
print("Array is empty")
How to Copy an Array
You can copy an array in Python using several approaches. Here are some common methods to copy arrays:
 List:
For a standard Python list, you can use the slicing syntax [:]
or the copy()
method to create a copy:
Using slicing:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
my_list_copy = my_list[:]
Using the copy()
method:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
my_list_copy = my_list.copy()
 NumPy array:
For a NumPy array, you can use the copy()
function to create a copy:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
my_array_copy = np.copy(my_array)
How to Filter an Array
To filter an array in Python, you can use various methods depending on the type of array you are working with. Here are a few common approaches:
 List comprehension:
For a standard Python list, you can use list comprehension to create a new list that contains only the desired elements based on a specific condition. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
# Filter elements greater than 5
filtered_list = [x for x in my_list if x > 5]
print(filtered_list) # Output: [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
 Filter function:
You can also use the builtin filter()
function along with a lambda function or a custom function to filter elements from a list based on a given condition. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
# Filter elements greater than 5 using lambda function
filtered_list = list(filter(lambda x: x > 5, my_list))
print(filtered_list) # Output: [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
 NumPy array:
For a NumPy array, you can use boolean indexing to filter elements based on a condition. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])
# Filter elements greater than 5
filtered_array = my_array[my_array > 5]
print(filtered_array) # Output: [ 6 7 8 9 10]
How to Join an Array in Python
You can join an array in Python using several different methods. Here are a few common approaches:
 Joining List Elements:
For a standard Python list, you can use the join()
method of strings to join the elements of the list into a single string. Here's an example:
my_list = ['Hello', 'World', 'Python']
# Join the list elements with a space separator
joined_string = ' '.join(my_list)
print(joined_string) # Output: 'Hello World Python'
In this example, the join()
method is used with a space ' '
as the separator to join the elements of the list into a single string.
 Joining NumPy Array Elements:
For a NumPy array, you can use the join() method of NumPy's char object to join the elements of the array into a single string. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array(['Hello', 'World', 'Python'])
# Join the array elements with a space separator
joined_string = np.char.join(' ', my_array)
print(joined_string) # Output: ['H e l l o' 'W o r l d' 'P y t h o n']
In this example, the join()
method from np.char
is used with a space ' '
as the separator to join the elements of the array into a single string.
The Sum of Array Calculation
You can use different methods to calculate the sum of an array elements in Python. Here are some common approaches:
 List:
For a standard Python list, you can use the builtin sum()
function to calculate the sum of all elements:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
array_sum = sum(my_list)
print(array_sum)
 NumPy array:
For a NumPy array, you can use the sum() function from the NumPy library to compute the sum of all elements:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
array_sum = np.sum(my_array)
print(array_sum)
Max Element of an Array
To find the maximum value in an array in Python, you can use the builtin max()
function or the numpy library's max()
function. Here's how you can use both approaches:
Using the builtin max()
function:
my_array = [5, 2, 9, 1, 7]
# Find the maximum value in the array using the max() function
max_value = max(my_array)
print(max_value) # Output: 9
Using the numpy library:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([5, 2, 9, 1, 7])
# Find the maximum value in the array using the max() function from numpy
max_value = np.max(my_array)
print(max_value) # Output: 9
Flattening, Splitting, Slicing & Converting & to 2D Array
In Python, flattening, splitting, and converting to a 2D array are common operations when dealing with multidimensional data structures. Let's review the basics.
How to Flatten an Array
You can use various methods to flatten an array in Python. Here are a few approaches for different types of arrays:
 Flattening a nested list:
You can use list comprehension and recursion to flatten a nested list. Here's an example:
def flatten_list(nested_list):
flattened = []
for item in nested_list:
if isinstance(item, list):
flattened.extend(flatten_list(item))
else:
flattened.append(item)
return flattened
nested_list = [[1, 2, 3], [4, [5, 6]], [7, 8, 9]]
flattened_list = flatten_list(nested_list)
print(flattened_list) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
 Flattening a NumPy array:
You can use the flatten()
method provided by NumPy to flatten an array. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])
flattened_array = array.flatten()
print(flattened_array) # Output: [1 2 3 4 5 6]
 Flattening a multidimensional array with NumPy:
If you have a multidimensional NumPy array and want to flatten it, you can use the ravel() method. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])
flattened_array = array.ravel()
print(flattened_array) # Output: [1 2 3 4 5 6]
How to Convert a 1d Array to a 2d Array in Python
To convert a 1d array to a 2d array in Python, you can use the reshape()
method provided by the NumPy library. The reshape()
method allows you to change the shape of an array without modifying its data. Here's an example how to reshape an array:
import numpy as np
# 1d array
arr_1d = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6])
# Convert to 2d array
arr_2d = arr_1d.reshape((2, 3))
print(arr_2d)
Output:
[[1 2 3]
[4 5 6]]
The reshape()
method takes the desired shape of the array as its argument. In this case, we pass (2, 3)
to reshape the array into a 2x3 matrix. The number of elements in the original 1d array must match the number of elements in the specified shape. If the number of elements is not compatible, a ValueError
will be raised.
Note: The
reshape()
method returns a new array with the desired shape; it does not modify the original array.
How to Split an Array into Chunks
To split an array into chunks in Python, you can use various methods depending on the type of array or data structure you are working with. Here are a few approaches:
 List comprehension:
If you have a list, you can use list comprehension to split it into chunks of a specific size. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
chunk_size = 3
chunks = [my_list[i:i+chunk_size] for i in range(0, len(my_list), chunk_size)]
print(chunks)
 NumPy:
If you are working with NumPy arrays, you can use the array_split()
function to split the array into equalsized chunks. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])
chunk_size = 3
chunks = np.array_split(my_array, len(my_array) // chunk_size)
print(chunks)
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array
module, you can use a loop to split the array into chunks. Here's an example:
import array as arr
my_array = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10])
chunk_size = 3
chunks = [my_array[i:i+chunk_size] for i in range(0, len(my_array), chunk_size)]
print(chunks)
Slicing an Array in Python
To slice an array (or list) in Python, you can use the slice notation array[start:stop:step]
, where:
 start is the index where the slice starts (inclusive).
 stop is the index where the slice ends (exclusive).
 step is the interval between indices (optional, default value is 1).
Here are some examples of slicing an array in Python:
my_array = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80]
# Slice from index 2 to 5 (exclusive)
slice_1 = my_array[2:5]
print(slice_1) # Output: [30, 40, 50]
# Slice from index 1 to the end of the array
slice_2 = my_array[1:]
print(slice_2) # Output: [20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80]
# Slice from the beginning to index 4 (exclusive)
slice_3 = my_array[:4]
print(slice_3) # Output: [10, 20, 30, 40]
# Slice with a step of 2
slice_4 = my_array[1:7:2]
print(slice_4) # Output: [20, 40, 60]
# Slice in reverse order
slice_5 = my_array[::1]
print(slice_5) # Output: [80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10]
In the examples above, we have an array called my_array
. By specifying the appropriate start
, stop
, and step
values, we can split the array creating different slices of it.
The first example creates a slice from index 2 to 5 (exclusive), resulting in [30, 40, 50]
. The second example creates a slice from index 1 to the end of the array, resulting in [20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80]
. The third example creates a slice from the beginning to index 4 (exclusive), resulting in [10, 20, 30, 40]
. The fourth example creates a slice with a step of 2, resulting in [20, 40, 60]
. The fifth example creates a slice in reverse order by using a negative step value ([::1]
), resulting in [80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10]
.
How to Plot an Array in Python
To plot an array in Python, you can use various libraries depending on the type of array and the desired plot. Here are examples using popular libraries:
 Matplotlib (for 1D and 2D arrays):
Matplotlib is a widely used plotting library in Python. You can use it to plot 1D and 2D arrays. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# Plotting a 1D array
array_1d = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
plt.plot(array_1d)
plt.show()
# Plotting a 2D array as an image
array_2d = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]])
plt.imshow(array_2d, cmap='gray')
plt.show()
 Seaborn (for statistical visualization):
Seaborn is a statistical data visualization library based on Matplotlib. It provides higherlevel functions to create informative plots. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
import seaborn as sns
# Plotting a 1D array
array_1d = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
sns.lineplot(x=np.arange(len(array_1d)), y=array_1d)
plt.show()
# Plotting a 2D array as a heatmap
array_2d = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]])
sns.heatmap(array_2d, annot=True, cmap='coolwarm')
plt.show()
Array Dimensions
You can determine the dimensions of an array with different libraries and data structures. Here are a few approaches:
 NumPy:
If you are working with NumPy arrays, you can use the shape
attribute to obtain the dimensions of the array. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array = np.array([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]])
# Get the dimensions of the array
dimensions = array.shape
print(dimensions) # Output: (2, 3)
 List of Lists:
If you have an array represented as a list of lists, you can use the len()
function to determine the dimensions. Here's an example of how to determine the shape of an array:
array = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
# Get the dimensions of the array
rows = len(array)
columns = len(array[0])
print(rows, columns) # Output: 2 3
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array module, you can use the len() function to determine the size of the array. Here's an example:
import array as arr
array = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
# Get the dimensions of the array
size = len(array)
print(size) # Output: 5
Does an Array Contain a Particular Element?
To check if a value is present in an array in Python, you can use different approaches depending on the type of array or data structure you are working with. Here are a few examples:
 List:
If you have a list, you can use the in
operator to check if a value is present. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
# Check if the value 3 is present in the list
if 3 in my_list:
print("Value 3 is present in the list")
 NumPy array:
If you are working with a NumPy array, you can use the np.isin()
function to check if a value is present. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
# Check if the value 3 is present in the array
if np.isin(3, my_array):
print("Value 3 is present in the array")
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array
module, you can use a loop or the index()
method to check if a value is present. Here's an example:
import array as arr
my_array = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
# Check if the value 3 is present in the array
if 3 in my_array:
print("Value 3 is present in the array")
Array Operations
In Python, you can perform various operations on arrays using different libraries and data structures. Here are some commonly used operations:
 Mathematical Operations with NumPy:
NumPy provides a wide range of mathematical operations for arrays, such as elementwise operations, linear algebra, statistical operations, and more. Here are a few examples:
import numpy as np
# Elementwise operations
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
addition = array1 + array2
subtraction = array1  array2
multiplication = array1 * array2
division = array1 / array2
# Linear algebra operations
matrix1 = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
matrix2 = np.array([[5, 6], [7, 8]])
matrix_multiplication = np.dot(matrix1, matrix2)
matrix_inverse = np.linalg.inv(matrix1)
eigenvalues, eigenvectors = np.linalg.eig(matrix1)
# Statistical operations
data = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6])
mean = np.mean(data)
median = np.median(data)
std_deviation = np.std(data)
 List Operations:
For arrays represented as Python lists, you can perform basic operations like concatenation, slicing, appending, and more. Here are a few examples:
# Concatenation
list1 = [1, 2, 3]
list2 = [4, 5, 6]
concatenated_list = list1 + list2
# Slicing
array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
sliced_array = array[1:4] # [2, 3, 4]
# Appending
array = [1, 2, 3]
array.append(4)
These are just a few examples of the operations you can perform on arrays in Python.
How to Compare Arrays
Let's revew how to compare arrays in Python. Here are a few approaches:
 NumPy:
If you are working with NumPy arrays, you can use the elementwise comparison operators provided by NumPy. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([1, 4, 3])
# Elementwise comparison
result = array1 == array2
print(result)
You can also use other elementwise comparison operators such as <
, >
, <=
, >=
, !=
, etc., to perform different types of comparisons.
 List:
If you have lists, you can compare them using the ==
operator. Here's an example:
list1 = [1, 2, 3]
list2 = [1, 4, 3]
# Compare lists
result = list1 == list2
print(result)
Note: The
==
operator compares the elements and the order of elements in the lists. If you want to check whether the lists have the same elements (ignoring the order), you can use theset()
function to convert the lists into sets and then compare them.
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array
module, you can compare arrays elementwise using a loop. Here's an example:
import array as arr
array1 = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3])
array2 = arr.array('i', [1, 4, 3])
# Elementwise comparison
result = [a == b for a, b in zip(array1, array2)]
print(result)
Multiplication of Arrays
To perform elementwise multiplication of arrays in Python, you can use the *
operator for NumPy arrays or list comprehension for regular Python lists. Here's how you can perform array multiplication using both approaches:
 NumPy arrays:
If you are working with NumPy arrays, you can use the *
operator to perform elementwise multiplication. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
array1 = np.array([1, 2, 3])
array2 = np.array([4, 5, 6])
result = array1 * array2
print(result) # Output will be: [ 4 10 18]
 Python lists using list comprehension:
If you are working with regular Python lists, you can use list comprehension to perform elementwise multiplication. Here's an example:
list1 = [1, 2, 3]
list2 = [4, 5, 6]
result = [a * b for a, b in zip(list1, list2)]
print(result) # Output will be: [4, 10, 18]
Delete an Element or Clear an Array
Let's look at the ways of deleting elements from an array.
How to Remove First Element from Array in Python
There are several ways to remove the first element from an array in Python. Here are a few examples:
 Removing the first element of a standard Python list using slicing:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
new_list = my_list[1:]
print(new_list) # Output: [2, 3, 4, 5]
 Removing the first element of a NumPy array using slicing:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
new_array = my_array[1:]
print(new_array) # Output: [2 3 4 5]
 Modifying the original array inplace using NumPy's
delete()
function:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
new_array = np.delete(my_array, 0)
print(new_array) # Output: [2 3 4 5]
Note: In the first two examples, we create a new list or array without modifying the original one. In the third example, the
delete()
function returns a new array, but it modifies the original array inplace.
Choose the method that suits your needs based on whether you want to create a new array without the first element or modify the original array itself.
pop()
Method for Array
In Python, you can use the pop()
method to remove and return an element from an array or list. The pop()
method removes the last element by default, but you can also specify the index of the element you want to remove. Here are a few examples:
 List:
If you are working with a list, you can use the pop()
method to remove and return the last element. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
popped_element = my_list.pop()
print(popped_element) # Output: 5
print(my_list) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4]
You can also pass an index to the pop()
method to remove and return an element at a specific position. For example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
popped_element = my_list.pop(2)
print(popped_element) # Output: 3
print(my_list) # Output: [1, 2, 4, 5]
 Array module:
If you are using the builtin array
module, you can use the pop()
method to remove and return the last element. Here's an example:
import array as arr
my_array = arr.array('i', [1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
popped_element = my_array.pop()
print(popped_element) # Output: 5
print(my_array) # Output: array('i', [1, 2, 3, 4])
Note: The `pop() method is available only for lists and not for NumPy arrays.
How to Clear an Array
To clear an array in Python, you can assign an empty array or list to the variable representing the array. Here's how you can clear an array using both approaches:
 Clearing a NumPy array:
If you're working with a NumPy array, you can assign an empty NumPy array to the variable. Here's an example:
import numpy as np
my_array = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])
my_array = np.array([])
print(my_array) # Output: []
 Clearing a regular Python list:
If you're working with a regular Python list, you can assign an empty list to the variable. Here's an example:
my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
my_list = []
print(my_list) # Output: []
How to Remove Duplicates from Sorted Array in Python
Let's look at how to remove duplicates from a sorted array in Python. Here's a common method using a list:
sorted_array = [1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5]
# Create a new list with unique elements
unique_array = []
for num in sorted_array:
if num not in unique_array:
unique_array.append(num)
print(unique_array) # Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Alternatively, if you are working with a NumPy array, you can use the np.unique()
function to achieve the same result:
import numpy as np
sorted_array = np.array([1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5])
# Get unique elements from the sorted array
unique_array = np.unique(sorted_array)
print(unique_array) # Output: [1 2 3 4 5]
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