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Operators in Python Statements

Operators in Python Statements

In this article, we will explore the different types of operators in Python and how they are used in programming.

The in Opertor

The in operator in Python is used to check whether a value is present in a sequence or not. It returns a Boolean value True if the value is found in the sequence and False otherwise.

my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
x = 3

if x in my_list:
    print("Element is present in the list")
else:
    print("Element is not present in the list")

# Output:
# 
# Element is present in the list
my_string = "Hello World"
x = "o"

if x in my_string:
    print("Substring is present in the string")
else:
    print("Substring is not present in the string")

# Output:
# 
# Substring is present in the string

With the in operator, we can easily check the existence of elements in a list, tuple, or any other sequence data type in python. It also helps in simplifying the code and making it more readable.

How to Use and Operator in if

The and operator in Python is used in if statements to test if multiple conditions are true. It returns True if both conditions are true, and False otherwise. Here are two examples:

x = 5
y = 10
if x > 0 and y > 0:
    print("Both x and y are positive")
else:
    print("At least one of x and y is not positive")

In this example, the and operator is used to determine if both x and y are positive. Since x and y are both greater than 0, the if statement evaluates to True and Both x and y are positive is printed.

name = "John"
age = 25
if name == "John" and age == 25:
    print("Your name is John and you are 25 years old")
else:
    print("You are not John or you are not 25 years old")

In this example, the and operator is used to check if both name is John and age is 25. Since both conditions are true, the if statement evaluates to True and Your name is John and you are 25 years old is printed.

In summary, the and operator in Python is a powerful tool in if statements that allows you to check for multiple conditions at once. It can be very useful in complex programs that require extensive condition checking.

The or Operator

The or operator in Python is a logical operator that returns True if either of the two operands are True, and False if both operands are False. It can be used in conditional statements or Boolean expressions.

The or Operator in a Conditional Statement

age = 25
if age < 18 or age > 60:
    print("You are not eligible for this job")
else:
    print("You are eligible for this job")

# Output: `You are eligible for this job`

In this example, the or operator is used to check if the age variable is either less than 18 or greater than 60. If either of the conditions is True, it prints a message saying the person is not eligible for the job. Otherwise, it prints a message saying the person is eligible for the job.

The or Operator in a Boolean Expression

x = 5
y = 10
result = x > 3 or y < 9
print(result)
# Output: `True`

In this example, the or operator is used in a Boolean expression to check if either x is greater than 3 or y is less than 9. Since x is greater than 3, the expression evaluates to True and the result is printed as True.

Overall, the or operator in Python provides a simple way to check if at least one of the conditions in a Boolean expression is True.

The not Operator

The not operator in Python is used to reverse the logical state of a Boolean expression. It returns True if the expression is False and False if the expression is True. Here are two examples:

How to Use the not with a Boolean Variable

flag = False
print(not flag)

The not with a Comparison Operator

x = 10
y = 5
print(not x > y) ### Output

Overall, the not operator is a useful tool in Python for changing the truth value of a Boolean expression. It can be used with Boolean variables or in conjunction with comparison operators.

Not Equal Operator

The not equal operator in Python is used to compare two values and returns True if they are not equal, and False if they are equal. The symbol used for the not equal operator is !=.

value1 != value2
a = 5
b = 3
if a != b:
    print("a is not equal to b")

# Output:
# 
# a is not equal to b
name1 = "John"
name2 = "Mary"
if name1 != name2:
    print("Names are not equal")
# Output:
# 
# Names are not equal

By using the not equal operator in Python, you can easily compare two values and get the desired output. This operator is useful in many situations where you need to check if two values are not equal.

Division

In Python, there are three types of division operators: the single forward slash / operator, the double forward slash // operator, and the percent % operator.

The / operator performs regular division and returns a float answer, while the // operator performs floor division and returns the integer value of the quotient. The % operator returns the remainder of the division. The another name of the % is modulo operator

x = 10
y = 3
result = x / y
print(result)

Output: 3.3333333333333335

x = 10
y = 3
floor_division = x // y 
# Use modulo operator
remainder = x % y 
print(floor_division)
print(remainder)

# Output: 
# 
# 3
# 1

Overall, understanding these operators and their differences is important in Python programming when dealing with mathematical operations.

The : Operator

The : operator in Python is used for slicing sequences such as lists, tuples, and strings. It allows you to extract a portion of a sequence by specifying a start and end index separated by a colon. You can also specify a step size. This operator is very useful when working with data in Python.

### create a list

my_list = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

### slice the list from index 2 to index 4

sliced_list = my_list[2:5]

### print the sliced list

print(sliced_list)

# Output:
# 
# [2, 3, 4]
### create a string

my_string = "Hello world!"

### slice the string to get characters from index 1 to index 4

sliced_string = my_string[1:5]

### print the sliced string

print(sliced_string)

# Output:
# 
# ello

The : operator is an essential tool in Python for working with sequences. Its flexible syntax makes slicing and dicing data a breeze!

Boolean Operator in Python

Boolean operators in Python are used to evaluate true or false conditions. These operators include and, or and not. In Python, boolean operations are created with the keywords and, or and not.

x = 5
y = 10
z = 15

if x < y and z > y:
    print("Both conditions are true")
# Output: `Both conditions are true`
x = 5
y = 10
z = 15

if x < y or z < y:
    print("At least one condition is true")

# Output: `At least one condition is true`

Using boolean operators in Python provides flexibility in evaluating multiple conditions and making decisions. By using boolean operations, complex statements can be simplified and coded in fewer lines of code.

Operator Overloading

In Python, Operator Overloading enables us to define the behavior of operators in a custom manner for a specific class or object. This helps to enhance the clarity and readability of the code. Python supports operator overloading for most of the built-in operators such as +, -, /, //, %, &, |, ^, >>, <<, <, >, <=, >=, ==, !=, and more.

Here are two code examples that demonstrate operator overloading in Python:

class Rectangle:
    def __init__(self, length, width):
        self.length = length
        self.width = width

    def __str__(self):
        return f"Rectangle({self.length}, {self.width})"

    def __add__(self, other):
        return Rectangle(self.length + other.length, self.width + other.width)

r1 = Rectangle(4, 3)
r2 = Rectangle(2, 5)
print(r1 + r2)  ### Output

In the above code, we have defined a custom behavior for the '+' operator for the Rectangle class. When we add two Rectangle objects using '+' operator, it will create a new Rectangle object with the sum of the length and width of both rectangles.

class Book:
    def __init__(self, title, author, pages):
        self.title = title
        self.author = author
        self.pages = pages

    def __lt__(self, other):
        return self.pages < other.pages

b1 = Book("Python for Beginners", "John Smith", 300)
b2 = Book("Advanced Python", "David Johnson", 500)
print(b1 < b2)  ### Output

In this code, we have defined a custom behavior for the < operator for the Book class. It compares two books based on the number of pages they have. If the number of pages in the self object is less than the number of pages in the other object, it will return True.

Overall, operator overloading in Python helps you to write more readable and expressive code. It makes your code look cleaner and easier to understand.

Math Operators in Python

Python provides a variety of math operators that can be used to perform mathematical operations in Python. These operators include addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulo.

Addition Operator

The addition operator in Python is represented by a +. It is used to add two or more numbers, as shown below:

# Adding two numbers
num1 = 10
num2 = 20
result = num1 + num2 
print(result)  # Output: 30

# Adding more than two numbers
result = num1 + num2 + 5
print(result)  # Output: 35

Division Operator

The division operator in Python is represented by a /. It is used to divide one number by another number and returns a floating-point value as the result:

# Division of two numbers
num1 = 10
num2 = 2
result = num1 / num2 
print(result)  # Output: 5.0  (float)

# Division with remainder
num1 = 7
num2 = 3
result = num1 / num2 
remainder = num1 % num2
print(result)  # Output: 2.3333333333333335 (float)
print(remainder) # Output: 1 (int)

Python offers many other math operators such as subtraction, multiplication, modulo, and more. By using these operators, you can perform complex mathematical operations in your Python programs.

Bitwise Operators in Python

Bit operators are used in Python to perform bitwise operations on integers. These operations work by manipulating individual bits of binary representation of integers. This is useful in low-level programming, such as optimizing code or working with hardware.

How to use bit operators in Python

There are six bitwise operators available in Python. These are:

  • & (bitwise AND): This operator returns a new integer whose bits are set to 1 only if both corresponding bits of the operands are 1.
  • | (bitwise OR): This operator returns a new integer whose bits are set to 1 if any corresponding bits of the operands are 1.
  • ^ (bitwise XOR): This operator returns a new integer whose bits are set to 1 if only one of the corresponding bits of the operands is 1.
  • ~ (bitwise NOT): This operator returns the complement of the operand, i.e., it flips all the bits of the operand.
  • << (left shift): This operator shifts the bits of the operand to the left by the specified number of bits. The shifted bits are filled with 0.
  • >> (right shift): This operator shifts the bits of the operand to the right by the specified number of bits. The shifted bits are filled with 0 for positive numbers and 1 for negative numbers.

The & Operator

x = 5      

y = 3      

z = x & y  ### in binary

print(z)   ### Output

In this example, we use the bitwise AND operator to find the common bits between x and y. The result is 1, which is the only bit that is set to 1 in both x and y.

The << Operator

x = 7      

y = 2     

z = x << 1 ### in binary

print(z)   ### Output 

In this example, we use the left shift operator to shift the bits of x to the left by one position. The result is 14, which is 1110 in binary. The shifted bit on the left is filled with 0.

Overall, bit operations in Python can be useful for optimizing code and working with numbers at a low level.

Operator Order

In Python, just like in math, there is a specific order in which operators are evaluated. This is known as the order of operations. The operator precedence in Python is as follows:

  1. Parentheses
  2. Exponentiation
  3. Multiplication, Division, and Modulus (left to right)
  4. Addition and Subtraction (left to right)

It is important to keep this order in mind while writing expressions in Python.


result = 5 + 3 * 2 # first 3*2 will be evaluated, then 5 will be added to the result
print(result) # output: 11

result = (5 + 3) * 2 # first 5+3 will be evaluated in the parentheses, then the result will be multiplied by 2
print(result) # output: 16

In the first example, the multiplication operation is evaluated before the addition operation, as per the order of operations. In the second example, the addition operation inside the parentheses is evaluated first, again as per the order of operations. Understanding the operator order in Python can help avoid errors and produce more accurate results.

Walrus Operator

The Walrus Operator is a new feature available in Python 3.8 and later versions. It provides a concise and efficient way of assigning values to variables in certain scenarios.

Understanding the Walrus Operator

The Walrus Operator is denoted by the := symbol and is used to assign values to variables in a single expression. It is particularly useful in scenarios where repeated calls to functions or methods are resource-intensive, as it can help reduce these calls.

Walrus Operator with 'if' Statement


if (a:=2+3) > 4:
    print(f"{a} is greater than 4")
else:
    print(f"{a} is less than or equal to 4")

Walrus Operator with 'while' Loop

import random

while (num:=random.randint(1,10)) != 3:
     print(num)

In both examples above, the Walrus Operator is used to assign values to the variable in the same expression as the conditional statement. This makes the code more concise and easier to read.

Exponent Operator

The exponentiation operator in Python is represented by ** and is used to raise a number to a power. It is a binary operator that takes two operands; the first being the base and the second being the exponent.

Here are two code examples to demonstrate the usage of the exponentiation operator in Python:

num = 2
exp = 3
result = num ** exp
print(result)  

num = 2
exp = 3
num **= exp
print(num)  

In both examples, the ** operator is used to calculate the result of raising a number to a power. In the second example, the result is assigned to the variable num using the assignment operator **= for more concise code. By using the exponentiation operator, you can easily perform exponentiation operations in your Python code.

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Python engineer, expert in third-party web services integration.
Updated: 02/20/2024 - 22:15
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Reviewed and approved