Skip to main content

Match Statements

Match Statements in Python

Switch statements are a popular feature in many programming languages, allowing developers to cleanly and efficiently handle multiple conditional cases. However, Python does not include a built-in switch statement. In this article, we will explore several ways to implement switch-like functionality in Python, using various techniques and libraries. Whether you're a seasoned developer or just starting out, this guide will provide valuable insights into this important programming concept.

Match Statement

The match statement was introduced in Python 3.10 to provide a concise and readable way to express conditional logic. It allows you to compare a value against a set of patterns and execute corresponding code based on the match.

To use match in Python, you can create a case statement for each pattern to match against. Here is an example code snippet that demonstrates the python match case statement:

def describe_number(num):
    match num:
        case 0:
            return "Zero"
        case 1:
            return "Single"
        case _:
            return "Multiple"

In this example, the describe_number function takes a num parameter and returns a string based on the value of num. If num is 0, it returns Zero. If num is 1, it returns Single. Otherwise, it returns Multiple using a wildcard match pattern with _.

Here is another Python case statement example:

def calculate_discount(total_amount):
    match total_amount:
        case amount if amount < 1000:
            return amount * 0.05
        case amount if amount >= 1000 and amount < 5000:
            return amount * 0.10
        case amount if amount >= 5000:
            return amount * 0.15

In this example, the calculate_discount function takes a total_amount parameter and returns the corresponding discount based on the value of total_amount. The match statement has three case statements with specific conditions, each returning the applicable discount percentage.

In conclusion, the match statement is a powerful addition to the Python language that simplifies conditional statements. It can improve readability and help you write more concise code.

Switch Statement

Unfortunately, Python does not have a native switch case statement. However, there are several methods to emulate its functionality through other constructs such as if-elif-else statements or dictionaries.

def switch_case(argument):
    if argument == 0:
        return "Zero"
    elif argument == 1:
        return "One"
    elif argument == 2:
        return "Two"
    else:
        return "Invalid argument"

print(switch_case(2)) # Output: Two
def switch_case(argument):
    return {
        0: "Zero",
        1: "One",
        2: "Two"
    }.get(argument, "Invalid argument")

print(switch_case(2)) # Output: Two

Although not as concise as a switch case statement, these alternatives can provide similar logic and readability in your Python code.

Contribute with us!

Do not hesitate to contribute to Python tutorials on GitHub: create a fork, update content and issue a pull request.

Profile picture for user AliaksandrSumich
Python engineer, expert in third-party web services integration.
Updated: 03/28/2024 - 22:37
Profile picture for user angarsky
Reviewed and approved