# How to Return a Function Returning a function from a function means that a function is created and returned as output of another function. This is possible in Python because functions are first-class objects, which means they can be passed around just like any other object such as integers, strings, or lists.

## Return function in Python

In next example, `function1` returns a function `function2` that multiplies its argument by `a`. When `function1(5)` is called, it returns `function2` with `a` set to `5`. This returned function is stored in the variable `multiply_by_5`. We can then call `multiply_by_5(3)` to get the result of `15`.

### Example 1: Simple use of function return

``````def function1(a):
def function2(b):
return a * b
return function2

multiply_by_5 = function1(5)
result = multiply_by_5(3)
print(result) # Output: 15
``````

### Example 2: Add or multiply

``````def function3(operation):
return a + b
def multiply_numbers(a, b):
return a * b
elif operation == "multiply":
return multiply_numbers

math_function = function3(operation_type)
result = math_function(3, 5)
print(result) # Output: 8
``````

In this example, `function3` returns either the `add_numbers` function or the `multiply_numbers` function based on the value of the `operation` parameter. If `operation` is `"add"`, the `add_numbers` function is returned and if `operation` is `"multiply"`, the `multiply_numbers` function is returned. The returned function is then stored in the `math_function` variable. We can then call `math_function(3, 5)` to add or multiply the two numbers based on the value of `operation_type`. In this case, since `operation_type` is `"add"`, the output is `8` which is the sum of `3` and `5`.

## Exploring the concept of nested functions and returning functions

In Python, functions can be nested, which means you can define one function inside another function. You can also return a function from another function. This concept of nested functions and returning functions allows for more flexibility and is a powerful tool in programming.

### Example 1: Returning a function from a function

``````def create_adder(num):
return num + x

``````

In this example, we define a function `create_adder` that takes a parameter `num`. Inside `create_adder`, we define another function `adder` that takes a parameter `x` and returns the sum of `num` and `x`. Finally, `create_adder` returns `adder`.

We then create a new function `add5` by calling `create_adder(5)`. This means that `add5` is now a reference to `adder` with `num` set to 5. When we call `add5(3)`, we pass the parameter `x` as `3`, which results in the output `8`.

### Example 2: Nested functions

``````def outer_function(num):
def inner_function(x):
return num + x
return inner_function

``````

In this example, we define a function `outer_function` that takes a parameter `num`. Inside `outer_function`, we define another function `inner_function` that takes a parameter `x` and returns the sum of `num` and `x`. Finally, `outer_function` returns `inner_function`.

We then create two new functions `add3` and `add5` by calling `outer_function(3)` and `outer_function(5)` respectively. This means that `add3` is now a reference to `inner_function` with `num` set to 3, and `add5` is a reference to `inner_function` with `num` set to 5. When we call `add3(10)` and `add5(10)`, we pass the parameter `x` as `10`, which results in the output `13` and `15` respectively.

## Understanding the advantages of returning a function from another function

One of the significant benefits of returning a function from another function in Python is that it provides flexibility. By returning a function, the programmer can create a more specific and customized function based on the inputs passed to the original function. It also allows for efficient code reuse.

Another advantage of returning a function from another function is that it can simplify code complexity, leading to a more readable code structure. The code becomes more organized and understandable, thus enhancing its maintenance and debugging processes.

Here are two examples of returning a function from a function in Python:

### Example 1: Returning a function that multiplies any number by a given factor:

``````def multiply(factor):
def inner(num):
return num * factor
return inner

double = multiply(2)
triple = multiply(3)

print(double(5)) #output: 10
print(triple(5)) #output: 15
``````

By calling `multiply(2)` and `multiply(3)`, we create two new functions `double` and `triple`, respectively, that can be used to multiply any number by `2` or `3`.

### Example 2: Returning a function that performs mathematical operations:

``````def operate(operation):
def inner(num1, num2):
return num1 + num2
elif operation == 'subtract':
return num1 - num2
elif operation == 'multiply':
return num1 * num2
elif operation == 'divide':
return num1 / num2
return inner

subtract_func = operate('subtract')

print(subtract_func(10, 5)) #output: 5
``````

By calling `operate('add')` and `operate('subtract')`, we create two new functions `add_func` and `subtract_func`, respectively, that can be used to perform addition and subtraction operations on any two numbers.

## Understanding the different ways of defining and returning functions in Python

Returning a function from a function can be useful in situations where we need to create functions dynamically based on certain conditions.

``````def create_adder(num):
return x + num

``````

In this example, we define a function called `create_adder` that takes a `num` parameter. Within the `create_adder` function, we define another function called `adder` that takes an `x` parameter and returns the sum of `num` and `x`. Finally, we return the `adder` function as an output.

We then assign the output of `create_adder(5)` to a variable called `add5`. This means that `add5` is now a function that takes a parameter `x` and returns the sum of `5` and `x`. When we call `add5(10)`, it returns `15`.

## Exploring the use arguments in returned functions

``````def power(base):
def exponent(exp):
return base ** exp
return exponent

square = power(2)
cube = power(3)

print(square(5)) # Output: 25
print(cube(3)) # Output: 27
``````

In this example, a nested function `exponent` is defined inside the `power` function. The `exponent` function calculates a number raised to a power. The `power` function returns the `exponent` function. Two variables `square` and `cube` are assigned by calling the `power` function with different base values. The final two print statements call `square` and `cube` with different exponent values.

``````def operation(operator):
def calculate(num1, num2):
if operator == '+':
return num1 + num2
elif operator == '-':
return num1 - num2
elif operator == '*':
return num1 * num2
elif operator == '/':
return num1 / num2
else:
return "Invalid operator"
return calculate

subtraction = operation('-')
multiplication = operation('*')
division = operation('/')

In this example, the `operation` function takes an `operator` parameter and returns the `calculate` function. The `calculate` function performs the arithmetic operation specified by the `operator` parameter on two number arguments. Four variables `addition`, `subtraction`, `multiplication`, and `division` are assigned by calling the `operation` function with different operator values. The final print statement shows what occurs when an invalid operator is used as an argument. 